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世界水日谈印度未来水源困境

更新时间:2011-4-29 20:37:19 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

U.N. World Water Day is a reminder that some of the world's looming water crises are urgent and vast in scope. That is especially true in South Asia, where hundreds of millions of the world's poorest residents lack basic water infrastructure, and where access to natural water supplies is set to become ever more competitive.

 

联合国世界水日提醒我们,世界上一些迫在眉睫的水源危机范围广泛,形势已经十分紧迫。 这种情形在南亚尤为突出,那里数以亿计最贫穷的居民缺乏最基本的用水基础设施,要想获得天然水源供应那就面临更加艰难的竞争。

U.S. intelligence officials believe water scarcity is shaping up to be one of the main potential drivers of future global conflict.

 

美国情报官员认为,水源稀缺将形成未来全球冲突的一个主要潜在导火索。

In his 12 years on a U.S. Congressional intelligence committee, U.S. Ambassador to India Timothy Roemer says he had regular access to reports about transnational issues U.S. officials believed could spark conflict or even war. He says the prominence of water issues in those reports evolved rapidly from the 1990s forward.

 

美国驻印大使蒂莫西.勒默尔曾在美国国会情报委员会任职12年,他说那时他时常接触一些美国官员认为可能引发冲突甚至战争的跨国问题报告,其中1990年代以来有关水源问题迅速地凸显出来。

"We saw issues like al-Qaida and technology, and water was about 10th or 11th on that list," said Roemer. "By the 2025 projected report, water was in the top five."

 

他说:“我们看到的报告包括基地恐怖组织和新技术问题等等各个方面,但水源问题排在第十位左右。但预计到2025年,水源问题将成为前5大问题之一。”

India's population of more than a billion people is widely expected to overtake the population of China by the middle of the 21st century. Both countries depend on a handful of major waterways originating in the Himalayan mountain range. One of those is known to Indians as the Brahmaputra, running through Chinese-controlled Tibet and into the eastern Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.

 

印度目前有10亿多人口,很多认为在21世纪中叶印度人口将超过中国。这两个人口大国都倚赖来自喜马拉雅山脉有限的几个主要河道。

Indian officials are closely monitoring Chinese plans to build a hydroelectric dam along that waterway. They say, during an India-China summit late last year, Beijing offered assurances it would do nothing to affect the supply of water downstream. The discussions are made more tense by the fact that China does not fully recognize India's sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh. On official Chinese maps, the Indian state shows up as "Southern Tibet."

 

印度官员严密注视中国在这条江上建立水坝的计划。他们说,去年年底印中两国举行的一次峰会上,北京做出保证,说不会采取任何影响下游水源供应的动作。

For hundreds of millions of Indians, lack of water is not a question of geopolitics, but lack of infrastructure for water delivery and purification. Ambassador Roemer says India's water crisis often affects the poorest, and the youngest.

 

对于几亿印度人来说,缺少水源不是地缘政治问题,而是缺少供水和净化方面的基础设施。勒默尔大使说,印度水危机经常影响到最贫穷、最年幼的群体。

"We all know small villages where, when you say hello, and you hug 10 children in that village, two or three of them may not be there four or five years from now due to problems that they have just getting access to clean and potable water," he said.

 

他说:“我们都知道在小村庄,你一声招呼就引来10个村里的儿童,但4、5年后因为他们面临的问题,其中两三名儿童就可能不在人世了,仅仅是由于难以得到清洁饮水的问题。

India's challenge in delivering basic sanitation and water supplies to the majority of its citizens is part of what Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh describes as a broader problem of "ecological poverty," which contrasts with India's growing wealth as an industrial and technological power.

 

印度面临为大多数公民提供基本卫生饮水的挑战正像印度环境部长贾伊拉姆.拉梅什所形容的那样是生态贫困这一宏观问题的一部分。水的问题和印度这个作为工业与技术大国迅速积累起来的财富形成了鲜明的对比。

"The reason why India must take environment seriously is because it is becoming a very serious public health concern," said Ramesh. "A public health concern not for the rich or for the middle classes, but it is becoming a public health concern for the poor."

 

拉梅什说:“印度必须严肃对待环境问题的原因是因为环境正在变成严重的公共健康问题。这不是富人、不是中产阶级阶级的问题,而是穷人公共健康的关切。”

Ramesh says India has undertaken a 10-year program to ensure no untreated industrial effluent or urban sewage is released into the country's main river, the Ganges. He says man-made pollution is one of the main contaminants of India's groundwater, upon which hundreds of millions of Indians depend for consumption and agriculture.

 

环境部长拉梅什说,印度正展开一个10年的项目,用来保证未经处理的工业废水和城市污水不能流入印度主要河流恒河。他说人为污染是印度底下水源受损的主要原因。地下水是数以亿计的印度人所倚赖的饮水和灌溉用水。

"Water quality is something that's absolutely essential," he said. "And we need to address some of these issues in a much more systematic manner than we have."

 

他说:“水的质量绝对是关键的问题,我们需要用比我们现有的作法更加系统的方式来解决一些相关问题。”

One of the most dramatic warnings about India's groundwater supply comes from Dipankar Chakraborti, director of environmental studies at Javadpur University in the Indian State of West Bengal. He was one of the first to point out decades ago the problem of arsenic contamination in deep water wells in West Bengal and Bangladesh.

 

一个有关印度地下水最为戏剧性的警告来自印度孟加拉邦一所大学(Jadavpur univ.)环境研究系主任察克拉波提,他是几十年前首先指出西孟加拉邦和孟加拉国深井水中有矿物质砷污染的几个学者之一。

Chakraborti predicts the health crisis of arsenic contamination will not be limited to northeast India and Bangladesh, but will emerge in the coming decades along the flood plains of the Ganges and other transnational waterways.

 

察克拉波提预言,深井砷污染导致的健康危机不仅限于印度东北部和孟加拉,而且在几十年内会在恒河流域以及跨国水道中逐渐凸显出来。

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